Hyaluronic acid (HA), a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan with a linear polymer of disaccharides structure, is one of the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM). This molecule is made up of a repetitive structure of two simple sugars, one called glucuronic acid and the other one is N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is biologically compatible and energetically stable molecule.
Hyaluronic acid molecules can swell up to 1000 times. It is important to note that the multiple biological roles of hyaluronic acid depend to a large degree on the molecular weight of its chain. Hyaluronic acid can be 2500 disaccharide repeats in length. Polymers of hyaluronic acid can range in size from 5 to 20000 kDa in vivo. The average molecular weight in human synovial fluid is 3-4 million Da, hyaluronic acid purified from human umbilical cord is 3140 kDa. The molecular mass of Hyaluronic acid in normal biological tissues and fluids is very high (ca. 1000-8000 kDa.)
Hyaluronic Acid (HA), also known as hyaluronan or hyaluronate, is a biomolecule, occurring naturally throughout the human and animal body. It can be several thousands of sugars (carbohydrates) long.
The use of hyaluronic acid has accepted during some eye surgeries including corneal transplantation, cataract removal and repair of a detached retina, and other eye injuries, used in eye drops in order to prevent dry eye symptom (DES). It can be injected into eye vitreous to replace natural eye fluids by ophthalmologists.
Hyaluronic acid can be used for many joint disorders, like osteoarthritis or cartilage damage. It can be taken by mouth or injected into the affected joint by orthopedics as it increases the viscosity of the synovial fluid it can improve joint movement and patient mobility.
Some patients can apply hyaluronic acid to the skin for healing wounds, burns, skin ulcers, and as a cosmetic moisturizer. Some information is displayed that HA is essential and helpful in treating diabetic foot ulcers by enhancing the rate of wound healing and promote angiogenesis.
Hyaluronic acid cream is a safe alternative for hormonal therapy in treatment of vaginal atrophy, it can relieve vaginal dryness in postmenopausal women.
Hyaluronic sodium solution topically can use as an alternative way to surgery especially when the perforation of tympanic membrane is small or medium sized.
Topically applying of sodium hyaluronate significantly improves patients’ QoL following FESS (Functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and stop mucosal hypertrophy.
Hyaluronic acid is distributed from prokaryotic to Eukaryotic cells. With high concentration can be found in fluids of the vitreous humor of the eyes and synovial fluids of joints. It considered as an important component of the skin, where it is involved in tissue healing. The umbilical cord, skeletal tissue. It is also abundant in embryonic mesenchymal tissues. The hyaluronic acid that is today used in medical industry is secreted from rooster combs or made by bacteria in the laboratory.
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Parry-Romberg Syndrome Augmented by Hyaluronic Acid Filler
Assessment of dry eye signs and symptoms and ocular tolerance of a preservative-free lacrimal substitute (Hylabak®) versus a preserved lacrimal substitute (Systane®) used for 3 months in patients after LASIK.
Hyaluronic Acid-Povidone-Iodine Compound Facilitates Diabetic Wound Healing in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Rodent Model.